This is a compilation of Research by University Online Coursework, Basic Internet Research and work in the field of Messaging Systems in Computer Science.

Neurology:  a combining form meaning “nerve,” “nerves,” “nervous system,” and the study of,  o-logy.

Brain Function, Malfunction, and diseases are detected by patient reports of health changes, bloodwork, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Electroencephalography (EEG), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), Computerized Tomography (CT), Near infrared spectroscopy, and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).  These are non-evasive procedures.  Other question and answer tests are used in Behavioral Science to assist with mental health.

A neuron is a neuron or brain cell that transmits and receives information to other neurons, forming a neural network in charge of sensory functions, motor functions, and emotions. Neurons differ from one another structurally, functionally and genetically, as well as in how they form connections with other cells. Scientists have only named 4 categories and only GENERALLY link them to Emotions, Feelings, Learning, and Actions and they agree, many more categories are needed.  My brain wants to categorize them into Thinking, Feeling, Perceiving, and Sensing, but since sensing is feeling, and perceiving involves is thinking or deciding, then I naturally want to narrow it down to Thinking and Feeling, but thinking is just a precept to Deciding. It’s comparable to the Conscious and Subconscious (Awareness and Unawareness) The Brain (or Mind) may go from Thinking to Deciding, then Feeling, but Feeling Occurs during both those processes.

Think –> Decide

To do things in awareness, we must have knowledge and motivation to take action.
Knowledge + Motivation = Action or:
Thoughts + Feelings x Action = Decision +/- Awareness
Remembering that of is multiplication.

To do things unaware, we are absent Self Knowledge and Motivation (or it may be subconscious)
Action – Knowledge + Motivation = Unaware Decision
Where do you get motivation without knowledge and what is the result? Simply an action based on expectation.  People don’t “subconsciously set out to harm someone,” so its either an accident or an equation of unawareness. Actions +/- Feelings +/- Awareness = Outcome +/- Feeling +/- Memory

What if there is no memory, then there is no awareness and/or no feeling or they are delayed or unresolved.  The question is where does it reside, either in the subconscious or somewhere else.  Where, possibly with the person or object affected by the action.  If these were energy molecules, you can see how the energy transfers, how it can possible be transformed (into emotions) and how it can be stored in the memory as positive or negatively charged particles or molecules.

If you have no memory of someone, then your memory is missing some values.  As you work your memory, you may find it to produce more values (positive or negative), or find other associated memories, it may occur with or without feelings, but not on both sides of the recollection process (a person may produce a sad emotion if the memory fails).

Unawareness could reside in the Subconscious until one becomes aware and that process requires knowledge and agreement from an external source.  We do think and decide subconsciously, without awareness, perhaps during sleep or awake where its a hidden, quiet process in the background or memory, where we Voluntarily or Involuntarily store messages to be read, received, retrieved at a later date for an action not known or visable to human awareness.  “I was unaware you were mad at me”  or  “I was unaware I was talking in my sleep” both only brought to the conscious awareness when another set of neurons (or people) are present and convincing.

Unawareness could involve subconscious thoughts or suppressed memories, a controversial topic due to Manchurian Syndrome (brainwashing).  Becoming aware that someone was mad at you does not usually linger in the subconscious and awareness can only occur when the person agrees or sees that they made someone mad or notices a change in another persons behavior.  Messages received in the subconscious are usually from other electronic devices such as the Computer, Television, or Music Player, or perhaps the person sleeping next to you.  It’s difficult to Think, Decide, and Feel while sleeping?  I wouldn’t know, I am not awake.  If Technology transmits information and signals, then one could be a receiver of such information and process it in the subconscious, completely unaware their computer asked them to wake up and jump up and down like a monkey, similarly, a human is not aware of their behavior during Hypnotism and only become aware and know when another person tells them what they did.

Other things are dependent upon these two processes such as what we call FREE WILL (or sphere of influence), but even without free will, we still Think and Decide, we just have no control over our actions due to another dependency, such as our livelihood.  Without Thinking or Feeling, we do things UNAWARE.  “I have to do what my boss says or I will be reprimanded or fired” or “I had to kill that man to protect myself.”  These are conscious decisions made in awareness.  Unawareness involves being controlled by another entity, person, or object where the self has yet to realize they are being controlled by it or have no power over it; such as an Eating Disorder or other Tendency.  The fail or refuse to take control or simply cannot due to an OUTSIDE INFLUENCE.

DO Neurons control these internal processes and systems?  Scientists say they do.

The properties of individual neurons, the network, electrical, biochemical are necessary to understand brain functioning and dysfunction.  A good place to start is the anatomy of a nerve cell.  To understand neural networks, it is necessary to understand the ways in which one neuron communicates with another through synaptic connections and the process called synaptic transmission.  Synaptic transmission comes in two basic types: excitation and inhibition.

It’s not difficult to come up with an Electrical Formula of a Thought Process and the Feelings associated with it (either positive, negative, or neutral), but to come up with a Chemical Equation for a thought — I just can’t see it, but Scientists seem to think our thinking relates to our physical health, which include Stress and Emotions or our ability to prevent an accident.  Is Carbon and Oxygen supposed to help control the positivity or negative reactions in my thinking?  Being under the influence of drugs and alcohol or other substances certainly negatively affects my thinking, but my hypothesis is that those affects are created by 1) System of Law; 2) Other Human Emotions and Actions.

Neurons – Scientists have classified neurons into four main groups based on differences in shape.  Multipolar, Bipolar, Psueduniopolar, Unipolar.
Synapses – Information Transfer occurs between one neuron to another neuron.  Specialized structures called vesicles.
Pre-Synaptic Neuron
Post Synaptic Neuron –

Resting Potential – use an electrode to measure the electrode’s millivolts to determine resting potential; typically -60; inside is different with respect to the outside. They can change their resting potential for transmitting, processing, and propagating information.

Action Potential – Depolarization (making the cell more positive), The greater the magnitude of the stimulus, the greater the number or frequency of action potentials.  This is called frequency coding of the nervous system.  The greater intensity of stimulus to the skin; the greater number of action potentials to the Central Nervous System telling you about the touch.  The greater the stretch of the muscles, the greater the number of action potentials to the spinal cord; the same thing works on the Motor Side of the System.

Excitatory Connection:  Pre-Synaptic Neurotransmitters produces depolarization until it reaches the threshold, there is a potential action in the Post Synaptic Neuron.

The synapse is the terminal region of the axon and it is here where one neuron forms a connection with another and conveys information through the process of synaptic transmission where the post-synaptic neurotransmitters release information to the neurotransmitter receptors.  One neuron can receive contacts from many different neurons.

An action potential that invades the presynaptic terminal causes these vesicles to fuse with the inner surface of the presynaptic membrane and release their contents through a process called exocytosis.  The released transmitter diffuses across the gap between the pre- and the postsynaptic cell and very rapidly reaches the postsynaptic side of the synapse where it binds to specialized receptors that “recognize” the transmitter.  The binding to the receptors leads to a change in the permeability of ion channels in the membrane and in turn a change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron known as a postsynaptic synaptic potential (PSP).  So signaling among neurons is associated with changes in the electrical properties of neurons.  To understand neurons and neuronal circuits, it is necessary to understand the electrical properties of nerve cells.  Engineers call this type of information coding pulse frequency modulation.

They are constantly adding up the excitatory and the inhibitory synaptic input in time (temporal summation) and over the area of the dendrites receiving synaptic contacts (spatial summation), and if that summation is at or above threshold they fire an action potential.  If the sum is below threshold, no action potential is initiated.  This is a process called synaptic integration

Inhibitory Connection:


Features of the Neural Network
Just a few interconnected neurons (a microcircuit) can perform sophisticated tasks such as mediate reflexes, process sensory information, generate locomotion and mediate learning and memory.  More complex networks (macrocircuits) consist of multiple imbedded microcircuits.  Macrocircuits mediate higher brain functions such as object recognition and cognition.  So, multiple levels of networks are ubiquitous in the nervous system.  Networks are also prevalent within neurons.  These nanocircuits constitute the underlying biochemical machinery for mediating key neuronal properties such as learning and memory and the genesis of neuronal rhythmicity.

Neurons send signals and messages throughout the body in a connected fashion to prompt feeling and movement.

What prompts the firing of a neuron?
The synapses are extremely close to the dendrites of the targetneuron. … then it is inhibiting the neuron. If it causes the membrane potential to pass the firing threshold then it will activate an action potential in the target neuron and send it down its axon.
Is a neuron equivalent to a thought?
There is no answer for this question published online, however, The Conversation posts some interesting material:
“Here, a “thought” includes processes related to perception (determining what is in the environment and where), decision-making (determining what to do) and action-planning (determining how to do it). The distinction between, and independence of, each of these processes is blurry. Further, each of these processes, and perhaps even their sub-components, could be considered “thoughts” on their own. But we have to set our start- and endpoints somewhere to have any hope of tackling the question.”  If our understanding of how a neuron fires and we measure it by Action Potentials, then Neurons may simply be fired when we decide to take action.
Speed to Thought is an interesting topic, but first we need to decipher what a thought actually is and where it takes place, in order to ensure healthy positive thinking and quick reaction.  If we can’t outright say a set of Neurons are a thought, then we aren’t able to cure Thought Disorders.  Psychiatrists prescribe MAOIs and SSRIs (Inhibitors) to help change thoughts and feelings or reduce negative thoughts, but the side affects are tremendous and if you look closely, you might realize, it’s yourself making a conscious decision to change your thoughts.  While they do contain chemicals that change your energy levels, they cannot be 100% responsible for improved thinking.  An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is involved in removing the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine from the brain.  The use of these medications are not without serious side effects.  A separate article on NEUROTRANSMITTERS is required.

As of 2012, the magazine Psychology Today, still doensn’t know where thoughts start and stop or the process of thinking.

Are neurons fired automatically or consciously?  I think there are two separate systems; a system to keep your system going (cardiovascular system) and perception, in charge of thinking and learning, and both systems are integrated with the Memory, Senses, Emotions, and Physical Feeling.

Is there a neuropathway for specific types of neurons and is it mapped to thought processes?
How can I change the contents of a neuron?
Is a neuron just a nerve cell?

It seems a Neurons and Micro/Macro Circuits share a similar design to the Motherboard and Operating System of a PC and the frequency design seems to operate similarly to a radio or computer in transmissions, as they use the same terminology.



By Savvy